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State Failure in the Modern World
Zaryab Iqbal and Harvey Starr. Stanford University Press. December 2015.
State failure is seen as one of the significant threats to regional and international stability in the current international system. State Failure in the Modern World presents a comprehensive, systematic, and empirically rigorous analysis of the full range of the state failure process in the post-World War II state system—including what state failure means, its causes, what accounts for its duration, its consequences, and its implications. Among the questions the book addresses are: when and why state failure occurs, why it recurs in any single state, and when and why its consequences spread to other states.
Principles of Comparative Politics, 2nd Edition
William Roberts Clark, Matt Golder, and Sona Nadenichek Golder. CQ Press. 2012.
The groundbreaking first edition of Principles of Comparative Politics offered the most comprehensive and up-to-date view of the rich world of comparative inquiry, research, and scholarship. Now, this thoroughly revised second edition offers students an even better guide to cross-national comparison and why it matters. The new edition retains its focus on the enduring questions with which scholars grapple, the issues about which consensus has started to emerge, and the tools comparativists use to get at the complex problems in the field.
Political Parties, Business Groups, and Corruption in Developing Countries
Vineeta Yadav. Oxford University Press. 2011.
Advances the controversial argument that strong legislative parties can make corruption worse, not better First treatment systematically analyzing how legislative lobbying by businesses affects corruption First study systematically exploring how design of legislative institutions influences corruption levels Political corruption is one of the globe's most pressing yet seemingly permanent problems. It is a root cause of low growth and inequality, and plagues numerous nations throughout the world in varying degrees. In the past, it proved difficult to measure, and the political science literature on it was thin. In recent years, political scientists have greatly improved their analytical tools for analyzing and contextualizing corruption, and it is now a hot topic in the discipline. In Political Parties, Business Groups, and Corruption in Developing Countries, Vineeta Yadav examines corruption levels in sixty-four developing democracies over a twenty-year period. Her comparative focus is on Brazil and India, two of the most important developing nations. Drawing from a 2005-06 survey of Brazilian and Indian businesses that she conducted, Yadav finds that legislative institutions are central in determining the degree and type of corruption. Most importantly, in legislatures where the party holds sway (as opposed to individual legislators), the level of corruption is higher. Party costs are higher than that of any one legislator, which explains part of the difference. More fundamentally, the fact that different systems offer different incentives to business groups and legislatures explains why some systems are less corrupt than others. Given structural variation across democratic political systems, her book allows to predict which states are most susceptible to political corruption, and which reforms might best alleviate the problem.
Evolution, Creationism, and the Battle to Control America's Classrooms
Michael Berkman and Eric Plutzer. Cambridge University Press. 2010.
Who should decide what children are taught in school? This question lies at the heart of the evolution-creation wars that have become a regular feature of the U.S. political landscape. Ever since the 1925 Scopes "monkey trial" many have argued that the people should decide by majority rule and through political institutions; others variously point to the federal courts, educational experts, or scientists as the ideal arbiter. Michael Berkman and Eric Plutzer illuminate who really controls the nation's classrooms. Based on their innovative survey of 926 high school biology teachers they show that the real power lies with individual educators who make critical decisions in their own classrooms. Broad teacher discretion sometimes leads to excellent instruction in evolution. But the authors also find evidence of strong creationist tendencies in America's public high schools. More generally, they find evidence of a systematic undermining of science and the scientific method in many classrooms.
War and the Health of Nations
Zaryab Iqbal. Stanford University Press, 2010.
Assessments of the costs of war generally focus on the financial, political, military, and territorial risks associated with involvement in violent conflict. Often overlooked are the human costs of war, particularly their effects on population well-being. In War and the Health of Nations, Zaryab Iqbal explores these human costs by offering the first large-scale empirical study of the relationship between armed conflict and population health. Working within the influential "human security" paradigm—which emphasizes the security of populations rather than states as the central object of global security—Iqbal analyzes the direct and indirect mechanisms through which violent conflict degrades population health. In addition to battlefield casualties, these include war's detrimental economic effects, its role in the creation of refugees and forced migration, and the destruction of societies' infrastructure. In doing so, she provides a comprehensive picture of the processes through which war and violent conflict affect public health and the well-being of societies in a cross-national context. War and the Health of Nations provides a conceptual and theoretical framework for understanding the influence of violent interstate and intrastate conflict on the quality of life of populations and empirically analyzes the war-and-health relationship through statistical models using a universal sample of states. The analyses provide strong evidence for the direct as well as the indirect effects of war on public health and offer important insights into key socio-economic determinants of health achievement. The book thus demonstrates the significance of population health as an important consequence of armed conflict and highlights the role of societal vulnerabilities in studies of global security.
The Women's Movement Inside and Outside the State
Banaszak. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
The Women’s Movement Inside and Outside the State argues that the mobilization and success of the U.S. women’s movement cannot be fully understood without recognizing the presence of feminist activist networks inside the federal government. Utilizing in-depth interviews and historical sources, Lee Ann Banaszak’s research documents the significant contributions that these insider activists made to the creation of feminist organizations and the vital roles that they played in the development and implementation of policies in many areas, including education, foreign policy, and women’s health. Banaszak also finds that working inside government did not always co-opt or deradicalize these activists. Banaszak’s research causes us to rethink our current understanding of many social movement concepts and processes, including political opportunities, movement institutionalization, and confrontational tactics, and it alters our conception of the interests and character of the American state.
The Politics of Persons: Individual Autonomy and Soci-historical Selves.
John Christman. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
It is both an ideal and an assumption of traditional conceptions of justice for liberal democracies that citizens are autonomous, self-governing persons. Yet standard accounts of the self and of self-government at work in such theories are hotly disputed and often roundly criticized in most of their guises. John Christman offers a sustained critical analysis of both the idea of the ‘self’ and of autonomy as these ideas function in political theory, offering interpretations of these ideas which avoid such disputes and withstand such criticisms. Christman's model of individual autonomy takes into account the socially constructed nature of persons and their complex cultural and social identities, and he shows how this model can provide a foundation for principles of justice for complex democracies marked by radical difference among citizens. His book will interest a wide range of readers in philosophy, politics, and the social sciences.
Lobbying and Policy Change: Who Wins, Who Loses, and Why
Frank R. Baumgartner, Jeffrey M. Berry, Marie Hojnacki, David C. Kimball, and Beth L. Leech. University of Chicago Press, 2009.
During the 2008 election season, politicians from both sides of the aisle promised to rid government of lobbyists’ undue influence. For the authors of Lobbying and Policy Change, the most extensive study ever done on the topic, these promises ring hollow—not because politicians fail to keep them but because lobbies are far less influential than political rhetoric suggests. Based on a comprehensive examination of ninety-eight issues, this volume demonstrates that sixty percent of recent lobbying campaigns failed to change policy despite millions of dollars spent trying. Why? The authors find that resources explain less than five percent of the difference between successful and unsuccessful efforts. Moreover, they show, these attempts must overcome an entrenched Washington system with a tremendous bias in favor of the status quo. Though elected officials and existing policies carry more weight, lobbies have an impact too, and when advocates for a given issue finally succeed, policy tends to change significantly. The authors argue, however, that the lobbying community so strongly reflects elite interests that it will not fundamentally alter the balance of power unless its makeup shifts dramatically in favor of average Americans’ concerns.
The Decline of the Death Penalty and the Discovery of Innocence
Frank R. Baumgartner, Suzanna De Boef, and Amber E. Boydstun. Cambridge University Press, 2008
Since 1996, death sentences in America have declined by more than 60 percent, reversing a generation-long trend toward greater acceptance of capital punishment. In theory, most Americans continue to support the death penalty. But it is no longer seen as a theoretical matter. Prosecutors, judges, and juries across the country have moved in large numbers to give much greater credence to the possibility of mistakes - mistakes that in this arena are potentially fatal. The discovery of innocence, documented here through painstaking analyses of media coverage and with newly developed methods, has led to historic shifts in public opinion and to a sharp decline in use of the death penalty by juries across the country. A social cascade, starting with legal clinics and innocence projects, has snowballed into a national phenomenon that may spell the end of the death penalty in America.
Semiparametric Regression for the Social Sciences
Luke John Keele. Wiley & Sons. 2008.
Nonparametric smoothing techniques allow analysts to estimate nonlinear relationships between continuous variables. In conjunction with standard statistical models, such smoothing techniques provide analysts with the means to test for and estimate nonlinear relationships in a wide variety of analyses. These methods, however, see little use in the social sciences. The book first introduces readers to the principles of nonparametric smoothing and to a wide variety of smoothing methods. Next, I demonstrate how such smoothing methods can be incorporated into linear and generalized linear models. The book provides numerous examples using analyses of data from Congressional elections, the Supreme Court, racial rioting, militarized conflict, feminist attitudes, and the sociology of the family.
Understanding American Government, 11th Ed.
Susan Welch, John Gruhl, John Comer, and Susan M. Rigdon. Thomson Publishing, 2008
Written by authors who have won numerous awards for their research and writing on women and minority issues in American Government, this textbook offers an inclusive view of participants in the American political system. From this book, you will not only learn how government works but you will move on to the more controversial aspects of government, being exposed to actual people and experiences of government in action through the You Are There feature that opens each chapter, the suggested film lists at the ends the chapters, and the online exercises that support and enhance concepts found throughout the text.
Strategic Basing and the Great Powers, 1200-2000 (Strategy and History)
Robert Harkavy. Routledge, 2007
This is the first book to survey the evolution of the strategic basing systems of the great powers, covering an 800-year span of history, from the Mongol dynasty to the era of the US empire. Robert E. Harkavy details the progression of strategic basing systems and power projection, from its beginnings at a regional level to its current global reach, while emphasizing the interplay between political and international systemic factors (bipolar vs. multipolar systems), and technological factors. Analyzing the relationship between basing structures and national power, the book deals with such key questions as: the co-mingling of military and commercial functions for bases; sea power; geopolitical theory; imperial ‘pick-off’ during hegemonic wars; base acquisitions; continuity between basing structures; and long-term shifts in basing functions. Strategic Basing and the Great Powers, 1200-2000 will be of much interest to students of strategic studies, military history and international relations.
A Theory of Foreign Policy
Glenn Palmer, and T. Clifton Morgan. Princeton University Press, 2006.
This book presents a general explanation of how states develop their foreign policy. The theory stands in contrast to most approaches--which assume that states want to maximize security--by assuming that states pursue two things, or goods, through their foreign policy: change and maintenance. States, in other words, try both to change aspects of the international status quo that they don't like and maintain those aspects they do like. A state's ability to do so is largely a function of its relative capability, and since national capability is finite, a state must make trade-offs between policies designed to achieve change or maintenance. Glenn Palmer and Clifton Morgan apply their theory to cases ranging from American foreign policy since World War II to Chinese foreign policy since 1949 to the Suez Canal Crisis. The many implications bear upon specific policies such as conflict initiation, foreign aid allocation, military spending, and alliance formation. Particularly useful are the implications for foreign policy substitutability. The authors also undertake statistical analyses of a wide range of behaviors, and these generally support the theory. A Theory of Foreign Policy represents a major advance over traditional analyses of international relations. Not only do its empirical implications speak to a broader range of policies but, more importantly, the book illuminates the trade-offs decision makers face in selecting among policies to maximize utility, given a state's goals. Glenn Palmer is Associate Professor of Political Science at Pennsylvania State University. T. Clifton Morgan is Albert Thomas Professor of Political Science at Rice University. His books include Untying the Knot of War.
American Government, 10th Ed.
Susan Welch, John Gruhl, John Comer, and Susan M. Rigdon. Thomson Publishing, 2006.
American Government courses are constantly changing because of world events and the political cycle. This new edition is rich with late-breaking coverage of as many current events as possible. This textbook, by authors who have won numerous awards for their research and writing on women and minority issues in American Government, offers an inclusive view of participants in the American political System. From this book, you will not only learn how government works, but will address many controversial issues affecting the United States today. You'll also get the chance to experience government in action through the "You Are There" feature that opens each chapter, the suggested film lists that end each chapter, and the online exercises that support and enhance the concepts in the text.
The Logic of Pre-Electoral Coalition Formation
Sona Nadenichek Golder. Ohio State University Press, Parliaments and Legislatures Series. 2006.
Why do some parties coordinate their electoral strategies as part of a pre-electoral coalition, while others choose to compete independently at election time? Scholars have long ignored pre-electoral coalitions in favor of focusing on the government coalitions that form after parliamentary elections. Yet electoral coalitions are common, they affect electoral outcomes, and they have important implications for democratic policy-making itself. The Logic of Pre-Electoral Coalition Formation by Sona Nadenichek Golder includes a combination of methodological approaches (game theoretic, statistical, and historical) to explain why pre-electoral coalitions form in some instances but not in others. The results indicate that pre-electoral coalitions are more likely to form between ideologically compatible parties. They are also more likely to form when the expected coalition size is large (but not too large) and when the potential coalition partners are similar in size. Ideologically polarized party systems and disproportional electoral rules in combination also increase the likelihood of electoral coalition formation. Golder links the analysis of pre-electoral coalition formation to the larger government coalition literature by showing that pre-electoral agreements increase (a) the likelihood that a party will enter government, (b) the ideological compatibility of governments, and (c) the speed with which governments take office. In addition, pre-electoral coalitions provide an opportunity for combining the best elements of the majoritarian vision of democracy with the best elements of the proportional vision of democracy.
Ten Thousand Democracies: Politics and Public Opinion in America's School Districts
Michael B. Berkman, and Eric Plutzer. Georgetown University Press, 2005
The essence of democracy is popular sovereignty. The people rule. In the United States, citizens exercise this right through elected officials who they believe will best represent their own values and interests. But are those interests and values always being followed? Authors Michael B. Berkman and Eric Plutzer provide the first systematic examination of the extent to which the governments closest to the American public—its 10,000-plus local school boards—respond to the wishes of the majority. Ten Thousand Democracies begins with a look at educational reforms from the Progressive era in the late 19th and early 20th centuries through the civil rights movement and ending with Pennsylvania's 2004 tax relief measure. Berkman and Plutzer explore what factors determine education spending levels in school districts, including the effects of public opinion, the nature of local political institutions, and the roles played by special interests. The authors show how board members are selected, how well the boards represent minorities, whether the public can bypass the board through referenda, and how the schools are financed. By providing an innovative statistical portrait that combines public opinion data with Census data for these school districts, the authors answer questions central to democratic control of our schools: how responsive are school boards to their public and when? How powerful are such special interests such as teachers' unions and senior citizens? By using the lens of America's public school districts to examine the workings of democracy, Ten Thousand Democracies offers new insight not only into the forces shaping local education policy but also how democratic institutions may function throughout all levels of government. Michael B. Berkman is a professor in the department of political science at The Pennsylvania State University. He is the author of The State Roots of National Politics: Congress and the Tax Agenda, 1978-1986. Eric Plutzer is a professor in the department of political science at The Pennsylvania State University.
The U.S. Women's Movement in Global Perspective (People, Passions, and Power
Lee Ann Banaszak. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005.
This ambitious volume brings together original essays on the U.S. women's movement with analyses of women's movements in other countries around the world. A comparative perspective and a common theme--feminism in social movement action--unite these voices in a way that will excite students and inspire further research. From the grassroots to the global, the significance of the U.S women's movement in the international arena cannot be denied. At the same time, the way in which international feminism has developed--in Asia, in Latin America, in Europe--has altered and expanded the landscape of the U.S. women's movement forever. These distinguished authors show us how.
The Behavior Origins of War
D. Scott Bennett and Allan C. Stam. The University of Michigan Press, 2004.
In The Behavioral Origins of War, D. Scott Bennett and Allan C. Stam analyze systemic, binary, and individual factors in order to evaluate a wide variety of theories about the origins of war. Challenging the view that theories of war are nothing more than competing explanations for observed behavior, this expansive study incorporates variables from multiple theories and thus accounts for war's multiplicity of causes. While individual theories offer partial explanations for international conflict, only a valid set of theories can provide a complete explanation. Bennett and Stam's unconventional yet methodical approach opens the way for cumulative scientific progress in international relations. D. Scott Bennett is Professor of Political Science at the Pennsylvania State University. Allan C. Stam is Associate Professor in the Government Department at Dartmouth College.
Multiple Paths to Knowledge in International Relations: Methodology in the Study of Conflict Management and Conflict Resolution
Zeev Maoz, Alex Mintz, T. Clifton Morgan, Glenn Palmer, and Richard J. Stoll. Lexington Books, 2004.
Multiple Paths to Knowledge in International Relations provides a uniquely valuable view of current approaches and findings in conflict studies. This volume showcases work informed by four powerful research tools: rational choice theory and game theory; simulation, experimentation, and artificial intelligence; quantitative studies; and case studies. Each research method is introduced and evaluated for its specific potential, including both strengths and weaknesses. Throughout, the notable contributors clearly explain how they choose, frame, and go about answering questions. While expanding our knowledge of particular conflicts, from the Crimean War to the Vietnam War to ongoing Palestinian-Israeli instability, Multiple Paths also furthers our understanding of how to conduct research in international relations.
The Unraveling of Representative Democracy in Venezuela
Jennifer McCoy, and David J. Myers. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004 & 2006.
For four decades, Venezuela prided itself for having one of the most stable representative democracies in Latin America. Then, in 1992, Hugo Chávez Frías attempted an unsuccessful military coup. Six years later, he was elected president. Once in power, Chávez redrafted the 1961 constitution, dissolved the Congress, dismissed judges, and marginalized rival political parties. In a bid to create direct democracy, other Latin American democracies watched with mixed reactions: if representative democracy could break down so quickly in Venezuela, it could easily happen in countries with less-established traditions. On the other hand, would Chávez create a new form of democracy to redress the plight of the marginalized poor?In this volume of essays, leading scholars from Venezuela and the United States ask why representative democracy in Venezuela unraveled so swiftly and whether it can be restored. Its thirteen chapters examine the crisis in three periods: the unraveling of Punto Fijo democracy; Chávez's Bolivarian Revolution; and the course of "participatory democracy" under Chávez. The contributors analyze such factors as the vulnerability of Venezuelan democracy before Chávez; the role of political parties, organized labor, the urban poor, the military, and businessmen; and the impact of public and economic policy. This timely volume offers important lessons for comparative regime change within hybrid democracies. Contributors: Damarys Canache, Florida State University; Rafael de la Cruz, Inter-American Development Bank; José Antonio Gil, Yepes Datanalisis; Richard S. Hillman, St. John Fisher College; Janet Kelly, Graduate Institute of Business, Caracas; José E. Molina, University of Zulia; Mosés Naím, Foreign Policy; Nelson Ortiz, Caracas Stock Exchange; Pedro A. Palma, Graduate Institute of Business, Caracas; Carlos A. Romero and Luis Salamanca, Central University of Venezuela; Harold Trinkunas, Naval Postgraduate School.
Organized Interests and American Government
David Lowery and Holly Brasher. McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Writing for an undergraduate audience, Lowery and Brasher take a comprehensive look at the world of interest groups: how they come to exist and how they influence a full range of government policymakers. They fully integrate and organize their text around the three-sided debate between the pluralist perspective, transactions perspective, and neopluralist perspective, as well as a student's direct relationship to public policies through our three branches of government. Features include: 1) Complete coverage of interest organizations from all levels of government: local, state, and national; 2) a concise length, assuring that it can be used with any American Government text; and 3) Questions about Your Interest Organization and Interest Group Examples boxes, bolded key terms and concepts, chapter discussion questions, chapter summaries, and a comprehensive index. Table of Contents: 1. Representing Interests An Argument What We Argue About / The Players and Their Evidence / The Argument in Perspective 2. Organization Mobilization and Maintenance The Mobilization of Interest Organizations / Maintaining Interest Organizations 3. Interest Organization Communities Interest Community Density / Interest Community Diversity 4. Organized Interests and the Public Influencing Choice Context / Influencing Choice Content / Influencing Citizens' Choices 5. Organized Interests and the Legislature Influence and the Stages of Legislation / Means of Influencing the Legislature / Strategic Choice 6. Organized Interests and the Executive Branch Organized Interests and Political Executives / Organized Interests and the Bureaucracy / Means of Influencing the Bureaucracy 7. Organized Interests and the Judiciary The Special Nature of Courts / Influencing the Courts / The Use of Judicial Lobbying 8. Consequences and Reforms Political and Policy Consequences / Proposed Reforms
Women's Movements Facing the Reconfigured State
Lee Ann Banaszak, Karen Beckwith, and Dieter Rucht. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
How have women's movements responded as state governments delegated power to transnational organizations like the European Union? Have they facilitated the shifts in state policy responsibilities to subnational governments, independent agencies, and the private sector? This study examines how women's movements have contributed and responded to changes in state powers and policy responsibility in North America and Western Europe. The international scholars contributing to this volume identify movement changes that include greater engagement with the state, specific policy-making ventures and challenges to national governments.
Democracy and War: The End of an Illusion?
Errol A. Henderson. Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002.
Errol Henderson critically examines what has been called the closest thing to an empirical law in world politics, the concept of the democratic peace. Henderson tests two versions of the democratic peace proposition (DPP)—that democracies rarely if ever fight one another, and that democracies are more peaceful in general than nondemocracies—using exactly the same data and statistical techniques as their proponents. In effect hoisting the thesis on its own petard, he finds that the ostensible "democratic peace" has in fact been the result of a confluence of several processes during the post-World War II era. It seems clear, Henderson maintains, that the presence of democracy is hardly a guarantor of peace—and under certain conditions, it may even increase the probability of war. Errol A. Henderson is professor of political science at Pennsylvania State University. His recent articles include "Clear and Present Strangers: The Clash of Civilizations and International Conflict" and "When States Implode: The Correlates of Africa's Civil Wars, 1950-92," and he is author of Afrocentrism and World Politics.
Regions of War and Peace
Douglas Lemke. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
In this contribution to the literature on the causes of war, Douglas Lemke asks whether the same factors affect minor powers as affect major ones. He investigates whether power parity and dissatisfaction with the status quo have an impact within Africa, the Far East, the Middle East and South America. Lemke argues that there are similarities across these regions and levels of power, and that parity and dissatisfaction are correlates of war around the world. The extent to which they increase the risk of war varies across regions, however, and the book looks at the possible sources of this cross-regional variation, concluding that differential progress toward development is the likely cause. This book will interest students and scholars of international relations and peace studies, as well as comparative politics and area studies. • Original contribution to the debate on the causes of war, looking at minor as well as major powers around the world • Offers a regional perspective, with analysis of Africa, Far East, Middle East and South America • Peace studies market, as well as IR.
Race and Place: Race Relations in an American City
Susan Welch, Lee Sigelman, Timothy Bledsoe, and Michael Combs. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
This book focuses on the impact of residential changes on the attitudes and behavior of African-Americans and whites. Will whites' attitudes about blacks and blacks' attitudes toward whites change if they are living in integrated neighborhoods rather than apart from one another? Are black suburbanites more likely to share the views of their fellow white suburbanites or of their fellow African-Americans in the central city? Will residential integration and new patterns of race in the suburbs break down divisions between blacks and whites in their views of local public services? These are the central questions of this book.
Warefare and the Third World
Robert E. Harkavy and Stephanie G. Neuman. Palgrave Macmillan, 2001.
As the United States enters into a new form of warfare, a primary battleground will be in the Third World. Critical to understanding the challenges ahead is Harkavy and Neuman's unparalleled examination of the numerous wars in the Third World, from interventions, including the Soviet experience in Afghanistan and that of the United States in Kosovo, to all-out conventional interstate wars such as the serial Arab-Israeli and India-Pakistan battles, to various types of low-intensity conflict, such as Marxist revolutionary and ethno-religious wars today. The authors describe and illustrate how wars have been fought, and how they are different or similar to war as the West knows it. Designed to help the reader better understand these conflicts by focusing on the "how" not the "why" of warfare, the book examines crucial dimension of contemporary armed conflict: the strategies, operations, tactics, doctrines, and weapons of conventional and low-intensity war; military geography; the cultural underpinnings of strategies and tactics; arms resupply; security assistance; and foreign intervention.
Power Transitions: Strategies for the 21st Century
Ronald L. Tammen, Jacek Kugler, Douglas Lemke, Carole Alsharabati, Brian Efird, A.F.K. Organski. CQ Press, 2000.
By succinctly integrating power transition theory and national policy, this outstanding team of scholars explores emerging issues in world politics in the 21st century, including proliferation and deterrence, the international political economy, regional hierarchies, and the role of alliances. Blending quantitative and traditional analyses, theory and practice, history and informed predictions, Power Transitions draws a map of the new world that will stimulate, provoke, and offer solutions.